IP Spoofing: How does it work?

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IP Spoofing

In an IP spoofing attack, a person tries to mislead other computer networks by pretending to be a genuine entity using a computer, device, or network. It is one of the numerous methods hackers use to get into computers and mine them for private information, take control of them and use them as zombie computers, or execute DoS (denial-of-service) assaults. IP spoofing is the most typical sort of spoofing among the several varieties.

Data convertion into packets

Whenever a data segment is to be sent on the internet/network, it is converted into IP packets. This IP packet has (Data + Header). The header basically contains info. of the packet, from where it is sent? to whom it is being sent? size of the packet? etc.

In order to do IP spoofing, the packet header must be altered to include a forged (spoofed) source IP address, a checksum, and the order value. Because the Internet is a packet-switched network, the order in which packets leave one system and arrive at the target machine may vary. Based on the order value encoded in the IP header, the receiving device resembles the message.

IP spoofing essentially entails solving the method used to choose the values provided in the right sequence and to alter them.

How IP Spoofing works

The data that is transmitted over the internet is first divided into a number of packets, which are then sent separately and combined at the other end. The source IP address and the destination IP address are two pieces of information that are contained in each packet’s IP (Internet Protocol) header.

In IP spoofing, a hacker uses IP spoofing tools to modify the source address in the packet header to make the receiving computer system think the packet is from a trusted source, such as another computer on a legitimate network, and accept it. Because this occurs at the network level, there are no external signs of tampering.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) assaults, which may overburden computer networks with traffic, frequently use this kind of attack. DoS attacks cause computer servers to crash by flooding them with data packets from fake IP addresses. The packets are frequently sent via geographically spread botnets, which are networks of hacked machines. Tens of thousands of machines each botnet might have are capable of faking several source IP addresses. As a result, it is challenging to identify the automated assault.

A modification on this strategy sends messages to a wide number of recipients from the same fake source IP address using thousands of machines. The receiving devices automatically overwhelm the targeted server with acknowledgments and broadcast them to the fake IP address.

Another malicious IP spoofing technique employs a “Man-in-the-Middle” attack to obstruct two computers from communicating, modify the packets, and then transfer them without the sender or recipient being aware of the changes. Hackers amass a vast amount of private data over time that they may use or sell.

The “castle and moat” defense’s basic tenet is that only individuals inside the network can be trusted, while those outside are seen as dangers. It is simple for a hacker to examine the system once they have gained access to the network. 

Given that vulnerability, more robust security methods, such as those that use multi-step authentication, are being used in place of basic authentication as a protection tactic.

Conclusion

IP spoofing is a technique that may be used to get around IP address authentication in systems that rely on trust relationships between networked devices. 

A number of IP spoofing techniques have been identified by Pcbossu among multiple publications and complaints. Every hacker used a unique IP spoofing method based on convenience. Once you know how IP Spoofing works, you can finally prevent IP Spoofing.

Here is an article on “How to Avoid IP Spoofing in 2022“.

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